The first A-Z resource to catalog the achievements and legacy of four millennia of scientific thought in the ancient world of the Mediterranean and the Near East, providing a complete overview of the physical, chemical, life, medical, and social sciences of the classical world. Although scientific methods are often dismissed as pseudoscience today, Science in the Ancient World draws heavily on classical texts to reveal the ancient roots of ideas that many now take for granted, from the earth's orbit of the sun to the existence of atoms. Many are familiar with such wonders as steam power and the discovery that the planets revolve around the sun. The fact that such phenomena were known to the ancient Greeks more than 2,000 years ago is less well known. Now, Science in the Ancient World redresses the balance by covering all the major scientific developments during 4,000 years of ancient history. Over 200 A-Z entries explore the origins of science, from astronomy and mathematics to medicine and chemistry. Giants like Aristotle and Plato are examined, together with more obscure figures like Nearchus, explorer of the Indian Ocean, and Hero, discoverer of steam power. Emphasis is placed on the diversity of ancient science, from the achievements of the Mesopotamians to the science of the Romans. The philosophies behind ancient science are explored, from the Epicurean pursuit of happiness to the asceticism of the Stoics. This comprehensive survey brings to the modern reader a long lost age of scientific discovery.