Diophantine geometry has been studied by number theorists for thousands of years, since the time of Pythagoras, and has continued to be a rich area of ideas such as Fermat's Last Theorem, and most recently the ABC conjecture. This monograph is a bridge between the classical theory and modern approach via arithmetic geometry. The authors provide a clear path through the subject for graduate students and researchers. They have re-examined many results and much of the literature, and provide a thorough account of several topics at a level not seen before in book form. The treatment is largely self-contained, with proofs given in full detail.