A self-contained presentation of the mathematical foundations, constructions and tools necessary for studying problems where the modeling, optimization or control variable is no longer a set of parameters or functions but the shape or the structure of a geometric object. This second edition presents the latest ground breaking theoretical foundation to shape optimization in a form that can used by the engineering and scientific communities. It also clearly explains the state-of-the-art developments in a mathematical language that will attract mathematicians to open questions in this important field. The area of research is very broad, rich and fascinating from both theoretical and numerical standpoints and this book reflects this exciting expanding field. This book will be of great importance to applied mathematicians, as well as advanced engineers and scientists working in this area.