This paper presents a literature review about the concept of redox flow batteries and its automation and monitoring. Specifically, it is focused on the presentation of all-vanadium redox flow batteries which have several benefits, compared with other existing technologies and methods for energy stored purposes. The main aspects that are reviewed in this work correspond to the characterization, modeling, supervision and control of the vanadium redox flow batteries. A research is presented where redox flow batteries are contextualized in the current energy situation, compared with other types of energy storage systems. Furthermore, a presentation about the current challenges on research, and the main existing installations is view. A discussion about the main dynamic models that have been proposed during last years, as well as the different control strategies and observers, is presented.


control theory, storage automation.

Author keywords

renewable sources, energy storage systems, flow battery, vanadium redox flow battery, state of charge, cell stack

Scientific reference

A. Clemente and R. Costa Castelló. Redox flow batteries: A literature review oriented to automatic control . Energies, 13(17): 4514, 2020.