This paper presents an adaptive non-linear observer for the state of charge estimation in vanadium redox flow batteries. The study is based directly on the use of non-linear equations that describe the evolution of the species concentration inside the system, and a nonlinear cell voltage expression that takes into account the effect of overpotentials. Moreover, a more realistic approach is used which does not consider that the electrolyte concentration is the same in the catholyte and anolyte sides of the system. It is shown that the state of charge can be estimated through the measurement of the output voltage and a high-gain observer. Nonetheless, the accuracy of the estimation is affected by uncertainty in the system diffusion rates. For this reason, the observer is robustified by means of an immersive and invariance adaptive parameter estimation. The results are validated in a numerical simulation.


observability, power system control.

Author keywords

Voltage measurement , Uncertainty , Parameter estimation , Nonlinear equations , Estimation , Vanadium , Observers

Scientific reference

A. Clemente, A. Cecilia and R. Costa. SOC and diffusion rate estimation in redox flow batteries: An I&I-based high-gain observer approach, 20th European Control Conference, 2021, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 1640-1644.