Publication

Nonlinear adaptive observation of the liquid water saturation in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

Journal Article (2021)

Journal

Journal of Power Sources

Pages

229641

Volume

492

Doc link

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2021.229641

File

Download the digital copy of the doc pdf document

Abstract

Efficiency, reliability and lifetime of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are significantly limited by inadequate water management. High-performance water active control algorithms cannot be implemented due to the absence of adequate online sensors that can measure the internal liquid water saturation. A promising technique that can be applied in this context is the state observer. However, fuel cell models present strong nonlinearities, model uncertainty, unmatched unknown parameters and sensor noise, which are major difficulties in observer design. The algorithm proposed in this work is based on a time-varying adaptive observer, that offers an estimation of the liquid water state and behaviour in the cathode catalyst layer of a PEMFC, coupled with a low-power peaking-free observer with dynamic dead-zone filtering that is used as a high-performance soft sensor. The algorithm is shown to provide an accurate estimation of the liquid water saturation and the liquid water transport parameters even in the presence of sensor noise and model inaccuracies. The results are validated through numerical simulations and in a real experimental prototype.

Categories

adaptive control, control nonlinearities, observability, power system control.

Author keywords

Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), Catalyst layer, Liquid water, State estimation, Parameter estimation, Noise

Scientific reference

A. Cecilia, M. Serra and R. Costa Castelló. Nonlinear adaptive observation of the liquid water saturation in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Journal of Power Sources, 492: 229641, 2021.