Research line

Automatic Control Image

The AUTOMATIC CONTROL line develops basic and applied research in automatic control, with special emphasis on modelling, control and supervision of nonlinear, complex and/or large-scale systems.
The group has acquired specific expertise in the application of advanced control techniques to environmental resources management, specifically in the water and energy fields.

Head of line: Maria Serra Prat

Head of line

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Modelling and control of complex nonlinear systems

In order to design controllers for complex nonlinear systems, it is fundamental to have mathematical models of the systems' dynamic behaviour. Regarding dynamic modelling of complex nonlinear systems, the Control Group focuses on four subjects: models for multidomain systems using PHS formulation; distributed parameter models and their order reduction; experimental characterisation techniques combining the use of time and frequency responses of the dynamic system, conceived as diagnosis tools; the design of observers to be integrated in the control systems in order to improve the system performance and minimise the number of sensors. Regarding control system design, the work is based on the following advanced control techniques: passivity-based control, Optimal Control, Model Predictive Control, Variable Structure Control (VSC) and Linear Parameter Varying (LPV)-Robust Control.

Research area 1 of Automatic Control

Modelling and control of large-scale networked systems

In automation, it is more and more frequent to deal with large scale networked systems which are composed by a multitude of elements of diverse dynamical nature. Obtaining a mathematical model oriented to the management and control of such systems should take into account their real time operation and complex topology. Moreover, complementary considerations such as physical constraints, hybrid behaviour and bounded disturbances are also challenging topics in the study of this kind of systems.

Research area 2 of Automatic Control

Design and implementation of decision-support tools for resources management systems with multiple, heterogeneous constraints

A large variety of real-time resource allocation problems dealing with long- and medium-term resources management typically appear in public services and industry. Some examples are water management (both surface and pipeline systems), energy generation and distribution, and environmental planning. The operation of these systems requires dealing with multiple, heterogeneous constraints. Not just physical constraints are to be met, but also those imposed by regulations, operational practices, economy, ecology, etc. The overall aim is to step away from the classical trial-and-error-based simulation approach and create real problem-solving tools for optimal management of large-scale resources management problems.

Research area 3 of Automatic Control

Real-time Supervisory Control, Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerance

Reliability is a feature required in modern control systems which implies the introduction of fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control modules that allow to know in real-time if there is any non-desired behaviour (fault) and activate some remedial action in order to keep the system in operation (fault tolerance). Complementary aspects as sensor/actuator location for achieving the desired fault diagnosis and tolerance are also addressed.

Research area 4 of Automatic Control

Applied Research

Theoretical knowledge is applied in real cases, in close collaboration with industry. Currently, research is mainly focused on four fields: modelling and control of systems based on Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells based systems; modelling, control and management of electrical networks; design of optimal operational management of networked systems related to the urban water cycle and sensor data validation/reconstruction of instrumentation systems. The Control Group gives primary importance to the tasks of implementation and experimental validation of the proposed control and modelling methodologies. These final stages of the control design process are developed either in the industry or at the Institute's Laboratories: the Fuel Cells Laboratory and the Water Cycle Control Systems Lab.

Research area 5 of Automatic Control

These are the latest research projects of the Automatic Control research line:

These are the most recent publications (2015 - 2014) of the Automatic Control

  • V. Puig, C. Ocampo-Martínez and R. Negenborn. Model predictive control for combined water supply and navigability/sustainability in river systems. In Transport of Water versus Transport over Water, 13-33. Springer, 2015.

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  • F. Muros, J.M. Maestre, E. Algaba, C. Ocampo-Martínez and E. Fernández. An application of the Shapley value to perform system partitioning, 2015 American Control Conference, 2015, Chicago, Illinois, to appear.

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  • J. Barreiro-Gomez, C. Ocampo-Martínez, F. Bianchi and N. Quijano. Model-free control for wind farms using a gradient estimation-based algorithm, 2015 European Control Conference, 2015, Linz, Austria, to appear.

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  • J. Barreiro-Gomez, G. Obando, G. Riaño-Briceño, N. Quijano and C. Ocampo-Martínez. Decentralized control for urban drainage systems via population dynamics: Bogota case study, 2015 European Control Conference, 2015, Linz, Austria, to appear.

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  • Y. Wang, C. Ocampo-Martínez and V. Puig. Robust model predictive control based on Gaussian processes: Application to drinking water networks, 2015 European Control Conference, 2015, Linz, Austria, to appear.

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  • C. Sun, V. Puig and G. Cembrano. Integrated simulation and optimization scheme of real-time large-scale water supply network: applied to Catalunya case study. Simulation, 91(1): 59-70, 2015.

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  • J.A. Luna, E. Usai, A.P. Husar and M. Serra. State estimation in fuel cell systems: A sliding mode approach, 2015 Iberian Symposium on Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Advanced Batteries, 2015, Tenerife, to appear.

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  • F. Bianchi, C. Ocampo-Martínez, C. Kunusch and R. Sánchez-Peña. Fault-tolerant unfalsified control for PEM fuel cell systems. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 30(1): 307-315, 2015.

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  • J.A. Luna, A.P. Husar and M. Serra. Nonlinear distributed parameter observer design for fuel cell systems. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2015, to appear.

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  • R.M. Fernandez-Cantí, J. Blesa, V. Puig and S. Tornil. Set-membership identification and fault detection using a Bayesian framework. International Journal of Systems Science, 2015, to appear.

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  • F. Castaños and C. Kunusch. Dither-less extremum seeking for hydrogen minimization in PEM fuel cells. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2015, to appear.

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  • J. Blesa, V. Puig, J. Saludes and R.M. Fernandez-Cantí. Set-membership parity space approach for fault detection in linear uncertain dynamic systems. International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing, 2015, to appear.

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  • C. Ocampo-Martínez, R. Negenborn (editors). Transport of Water versus Transport over Water: Exploring the Operational Interplay of Transport and Water. Volume 58 of Operations Research/Computer Science Interfaces Series. Springer, 2015.

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  • J. Moré, P.F. Puleston, C. Kunusch and M. Allué. Development and implementation of a supervisor strategy and sliding mode control setup for fuel-cell-based hybrid generation systems. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 30(1): 218-225, 2015.

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  • C. Kunusch, C. Ocampo-Martínez and M.I. Valla. Modeling, diagnosis and control of fuel-cell-based technologies and their integration in smart-grids and automotive systems. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 62(8): 5143-5145, 2015.

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  • F. Xu, V. Puig, C. Ocampo-Martínez, S. Olaru and F. Stoican. Set-theoretic methods in robust detection and isolation of sensor faults. International Journal of Systems Science, 2015, to appear.

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  • A.P. Husar, G. D’Elia and V. Roda. Experimental decoupling of single cell polarization losses, 2015 Iberian Symposium on Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Advanced Batteries, 2015, Tenerife, to appear.

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  • J.D. Rojas, C. Kunusch, C. Ocampo-Martínez and V. Puig. Control-oriented thermal modeling methodology for water-cooled PEM fuel cell based systems. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 62(8): 5146-5154, 2015.

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  • C. Sun, M. Morley, D. Savic, V. Puig, G. Cembrano and Z. Zhang. Combining model predictive control with constraint-satisfaction formulation for the operative pumping control in water networks, 13th Computer Control for Water Industry Conference, 2015, Leicester, in 13th Computer Control for Water Industry Conference, CCWI 2015, Elsevier, to appear.

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  • J.A. Luna, C. Ocampo-Martínez and M. Serra. Nonlinear predictive control for the concentrations profile regulation under unknown reaction disturbances in a fuel cell anode gas channel. Journal of Power Sources, 282: 129-139, 2015.

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  • C. Sun, V. Puig and G. Cembrano. Coordinating MPC of transport and supply water systems. In Transport of Water versus Transport over Water, 111-130. Springer , 2015.

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  • J.A. Luna, E. Usai, A.P. Husar and M. Serra. Distributed parameter nonlinear state observer with unmatched disturbance estimation for PEMFC systems, 2015 International Conference on Fundamentals & Development of Fuel Cells, 2015, Toulouse, pp. 8.

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  • V. Puig and C. Ocampo-Martínez. Decentralised fault diagnosis of large-scale systems: Application to water transport networks, 26th International Workshop on Principles of Diagnosis, 2015, Paris, to appear.

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  • R. Negenborn and C. Ocampo-Martínez. Perspectives on transport of water versus transport over water. In Transport of Water versus Transport over Water, 1-10. Springer, 2015.

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  • J. Barreiro-Gomez, G. Obando, C. Ocampo-Martínez and N. Quijano. Making non-centralized a model predictive control scheme by using distributed Smith dynamics, 5th IFAC Conference on Nonlinear Model Predictive Control, 2015, Sevilla, to appear.

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  • C. Ocampo-Martínez, V. Puig, J.M. Grosso and S. Montes. Multi-layer decentralized MPC of large-scale networked systems. In Distributed Model Predictive Control Made Easy, 495-515. Springer, 2014.

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  • M.L. Sarmiento-Carnevali , C. Batlle, I. Massana and M. Serra. Order reduction of a distributed parameter PEM fuel cell anode gas channel model, 2014 European Hydrogen Energy Conference, 2014, Seville, Spain, pp. 265-272.

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  • J. Blesa, F. Nejjari and R. Sarrate. Robustness analysis of sensor placement for leak detection and location under uncertain operating conditions, 16th Water Distribution Systems Analysis Conference, 2014, Bari, Italy, in Urban Water Hydroinformatics and Strategic Planning, Vol 89 of Procedia Engineering, pp. 1553–1560, 2014, Elsevier Ltd.

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  • K. Horváth, J. Blesa, E. Duviella and K. Chuquet. Fault tolerant model predictive control of open channels, 2014 USCID Conference on Planning, Operation and Automation of Irrigation Delivery Systems, 2014, Phoenix, USA, pp. 321-337, USCID.

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  • M.L. Sarmiento-Carnevali , M. Serra and C. Batlle. Distributed parameter model simulation tool for PEM fuel cells. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39(8): 4044–4052, 2014.

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  • F. Xu, V. Puig, C. Ocampo-Martínez, F. Stoican and S. Olaru. Improved actuator-fault detection and isolation strategy using interval observers and invariant sets, 19th IFAC World Congress, 2014, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 8024-8029.

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  • J. Blesa, K. Horváth, E. Duviella, V. Puig, Y. Bolea, L. Rajaoarisoa and K. Chuquet. Model-based sensor supervision in inland navigation networks: Cuinchy-Fontinettes case study, 6th International Conference on Maritime Transport, 2014, Barcelona, pp. 577-592, Iniciativa Digital Politècnica.

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  • K. Horváth, J. Blesa, E. Duviella, L. Rajaoarisoa, V. Puig and K. Chuquet. Sensor fault diagnosis of inland navigation system using physical model and pattern recognition approach, 19th IFAC World Congress, 2014, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 5309-5314.

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  • S. Strahl, A.P. Husar and J. Riera. Experimental study of hydrogen purge effects on performance and efficiency of an open-cathode proton exchange membrane fuel cell system. Journal of Power Sources, 248: 474–482, 2014.

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  • F. Xu, V. Puig, C. Ocampo-Martínez, F. Stoican and S. Olaru. Actuator-fault detection and isolation based on set-theoretic approaches. Journal of Process Control, 24(6): 947-956, 2014.

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  • B. Joseph, C. Ocampo-Martínez and G. Cembrano. Hybrid modeling and receding horizon control of sewer networks. Water Resources Research, 50(11): 8497-8514, 2014.

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  • J. Blesa, P. Jimenez, D. Rotondo, F. Nejjari and V. Puig. Fault diagnosis of a wind farm using interval parity equations, 19th IFAC World Congress, 2014, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 4322-4327.

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  • B. Joseph, M.N. Jung, C. Ocampo-Martínez, S. Sager and G. Cembrano. Minimization of sewage network overflow. Water Resources Management, 28(1): 41-63, 2014.

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  • C. Sun, V. Puig and G. Cembrano. Combining CSP and MPC for the operational control of water networks: Application to the Richmond case study, 19th IFAC World Congress, 2014, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 6246-6251.

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  • S. Strahl, A.P. Husar, J. Riera and R. Costa. Control de temperatura en pilas de combustible tipo PEM de cátodo abierto, XXXV Jornadas de Automática, 2014, Valencia .

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  • D. Limón, M. Pereira, D. Muñoz de la Peña, T. Álamo and J.M. Grosso. Single-layer economic model predictive control for periodic operation. Journal of Process Control, 24(8): 1207-1224, 2014.

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  • F. Bianchi, C. Kunusch, C. Ocampo-Martínez and R. Sánchez-Peña. A gain-scheduled LPV control for oxygen stoichiometry regulation in PEM fuel cell systems. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 22(5): 1837-1844, 2014.

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  • C. Sun, V. Puig and G. Cembrano. Coordinating multi-layer MPC for complex water systems, 26th Chinese Control and Decision Conference, 2014, Changsha, pp. 592-597.

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  • J.A. Luna, J.M. Acevedo, N. Rosanas and R. Costa. Nonlinear predictive control for the four-tanks plant flow regulation, XXXV Jornadas de Automática, 2014, Valencia .

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  • J.M. Maestre and C. Ocampo-Martínez. Chance-constrained model predictive control applied to inventory management in hospitalary pharmacy, 2nd KES International Conference on Innovation in Medicine and Healthcare, 2014, San Sebastian, in Innovation in Medicine and Healthcare 2014, Vol 207 of Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, pp. 410-413, 2014, IOS Press.

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  • S. Strahl, N. Gasamans, J. Llorca and A.P. Husar. Experimental analysis of a degraded open-cathode PEM fuel cell stack. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39(10): 5378–5387, 2014.

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  • J.M. Grosso, C. Ocampo-Martínez, V. Puig, D. Limón and M. Pereira. Economic MPC for the management of drinking water networks, 2014 European Control Conference, 2014, Strasbourg, France, pp. 790-795.

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  • Y. Wang, C. Ocampo-Martínez, V. Puig and J. Quevedo. Gaussian-process-based demand forecasting for predictive control of drinking water networks, 9th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, 2014, Limassol, Cyprus, pp. 1-12, Springer, to appear.

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  • S. Strahl, A.P. Husar and J. Riera. 2D transient modeling of hydrogen purge and temperature effects on the performance of PEM fuel cells, 11th Symposium on Fuel Cell and Battery Modeling and Experimental Validation, 2014, Winterthur, Switzerland, pp. 53.

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  • J.M. Grosso, C. Ocampo-Martínez, V. Puig and B. Joseph. Chance-constrained model predictive control for drinking water networks. Journal of Process Control, 24(5): 504-516, 2014.

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  • B. Joseph, C. Ocampo-Martínez and G. Cembrano. Hybrid control-oriented modeling of combined sewer networks: Barcelona case study, 11th International Conference on Hydroinformatics, 2014, New York City.

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  • J. Barreiro-Gomez, N. Quijano and C. Ocampo-Martínez. Distributed control of drinking water networks using population dynamics: Barcelona case study, 53rd Conference on Decision and Control, 2014, Los Angeles, pp. 3216-3221.

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  • M. Mayur, S. Strahl, A.P. Husar and W. Bessler. A two-dimensional multi-physics approach of transient PEMFC modeling in a virtual fuel cell car, 11th Symposium on Fuel Cell and Battery Modeling and Experimental Validation, 2014, Winterthur, Switzerland, pp. 61.

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  • C. Sun, V. Puig and G. Cembrano. Temporal multi-level coordination techniques oriented to regional water networks: Application to the Catalunya case study. Journal of Hydroinformatics, 16(4): 952-970, 2014.

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  • G. Cembrano, V. Puig, C. Ocampo-Martínez, J. M. Mirats Tur, J. Meseguer, R. Ariño and S. López. Real-time monitoring and control for efficient management of drinking water networks: Barcelona case study, 11th International Conference on Hydroinformatics, 2014, New York City.

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  • J. Barreiro-Gomez, N. Quijano and C. Ocampo-Martínez. Constrained distributed optimization based on population dynamics, 53rd Conference on Decision and Control, 2014, Los Angeles, pp. 4260-4265.

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  • J. Blesa, D. Rotondo, V. Puig and F. Nejjari. FDI and FTC of wind turbines using the interval observer approach and virtual actuators/sensors. Control Engineering Practice, 24(2014): 138-155, 2014.

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  • L.A. García, E. Escobar, J. Barreiro-Gomez, N. Quijano, C. Ocampo-Martínez and D. Téllez. On the modeling and real-time control of urban drainage systems: A survey, 11th International Conference on Hydroinformatics, 2014, New York City.

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  • B. Joseph, C. Ocampo-Martínez and G. Cembrano. Output-feedback model predictive control of sewer networks through moving horizon estimation, 53rd Conference on Decision and Control, 2014, Los Angeles, pp. 1061-1066.

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  • Y. Bolea, V. Puig and J. Blesa. Gain-scheduled Smith predictor PID-based LPV controller for open-flow canal control. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 22(2): 468-477, 2014.

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  • J.A. Luna, C. Ocampo-Martínez and M. Serra. Nonlinear predictive control for the concentrations profile regulation in a PEM fuel cell anode gas channel, 2014 European Control Conference, 2014, Strasbourg, France, pp. 1807-1812.

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  • A.M. Alzate and C. Ocampo-Martínez. Nonlinear model of leachate anaerobic digestion treatment process. Technical Report IRI-TR-14-02, Institut de Robòtica i Informàtica Industrial, CSIC-UPC, 2014.

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  • Y. Bolea, V. Puig and J. Blesa. Linear parameter varying modelling and identification for real-time control of open-flow irrigation canals. Environmental Modelling & Software, 53: 87-97, 2014.

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  • S. Strahl, A.P. Husar and A.A. Franco. Electrode structure effects on the performance of open-cathode proton exchange membrane fuel cells: A multiscale modeling approach. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39(18): 9752-9767, 2014.

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  • F. Xu, V. Puig, C. Ocampo-Martínez, S. Olaru and S. Niculescu. Robust MPC for actuator-fault tolerance using set-based passive fault detection and active fault isolation, 53rd Conference on Decision and Control, 2014, Los Angeles, pp. 4959-4964.

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  • S. Strahl, A.P. Husar, P.F. Puleston and J. Riera. Performance improvement by temperature control of an open-cathode PEM fuel cell system. Fuel Cells, 14(6): 466-478, 2014.

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  • D. Bezmalinovic, S. Strahl, V. Roda and A.P. Husar. Water transport study in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39(20): 10627–10640, 2014.

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  • F. Xu, S. Olaru, V. Puig, C. Ocampo-Martínez and S. Niculescu. Sensor-fault tolerance using robust MPC with set-based state estimation and active fault isolation, 53rd Conference on Decision and Control, 2014, Los Angeles, pp. 4953-4958.

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  • F. Tedesco, C. Ocampo-Martínez, A. Cassavola and V. Puig. On the comparison of predictive control and command governor approaches for operational management of drinking water networks: A case study, 19th IFAC World Congress, 2014, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 6228-6233.

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  • F. Barreras, A. Lozano, V. Roda, J. Barroso and J. Martín. Optimal design and operational tests of a high-temperature PEM fuel cell for a combined heat and power unit. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39(10): 5388–5398, 2014.

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  • J.M. Maestre, P. Velarde, I. Jurado, C. Ocampo-Martínez, B. Isla and B. del Prado. An application of chance-constrained model predictive control to inventory management in hospitalary pharmacy, 53rd Conference on Decision and Control, 2014, Los Angeles, pp. 5901-5906.

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  • A.K. Sampathirao, J.M. Grosso, P. Sopasakis, C. Ocampo-Martínez, A. Bemporad and V. Puig. Water demand forecasting for the optimal operation of large-scale drinking water networks: The Barcelona case study, 19th IFAC World Congress, 2014, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 10457-10462.

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  • M.L. Sarmiento-Carnevali , C. Batlle, M. Serra and I. Massana. Distributed parameter PEMFC model order reduction, 2014 Ibero-American Conference on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, 2014, Bellaterra, Spain.

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  • R. Sarrate, J. Blesa, F. Nejjari and J. Quevedo. Sensor placement for leak detection and location in water distribution networks. Water Science & Technology: Water Supply, 14(5): 795–803, 2014.

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  • J.M. Grosso, J.M. Maestre, C. Ocampo-Martínez and V. Puig. On the assessment of tree-based and chance-constrained predictive control approaches applied to drinking water networks, 19th IFAC World Congress, 2014, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 6240-6245.

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  • J.A. Luna, A.P. Husar and M. Serra. State observers design for PEMFC systems, 2014 Ibero-American Conference on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, 2014, Bellaterra, Spain.

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  • J. Sánchez and C. Ocampo-Martínez. Temperature modelling and model predictive control of a pilot-scale batch reaction system. Technical Report IRI-TR-14-03, Institut de Robòtica i Informàtica Industrial, CSIC-UPC, 2014.

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  • S. Tornil, C. Ocampo-Martínez, V. Puig and T. Escobet. Robust fault diagnosis of non-linear systems using interval constraint satisfaction and analytical redundancy relations. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, 44(1): 18-29, 2014.

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  • F. Xu, V. Puig, C. Ocampo-Martínez, F. Stoican and S. Olaru. Closed-loop actuator-fault detection and isolation using set tubes and invariant sets, 19th IFAC World Congress, 2014, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 8030-8035.

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  • F. Tedesco, C. Ocampo-Martínez, A. Cassavola and V. Puig. A distributed command governor strategy for the operational control of drinking water networks, 2014 IEEE Conference on Control Applications, 2014, Antibes, pp. 711-716.

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  • C. Sun, V. Puig and G. Cembrano. Two-layer scheduling scheme for pump stations, 2014 IEEE Conference on Control Applications, 2014, Antibes, pp. 1741-1746.

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Fuel Cell Control Laboratory

The objective of the Laboratory is the validation and testing of control strategies of fuel cell based energy conversion systems. The facilities are equipped with a supervisor system which monitors necessary safety conditions. Each of the five fuel cell test stations is equipped with the necessary sensors and actuators to be able to operate in a safe and automated way, as well as to modify the working conditions that affect a fuel cell (humidity, temperature, flow, etc.).

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Research area 1 of Automatic Control

Water-cycle Control Systems Laboratory

The aim of this laboratory is to test and validate modelling and control developments for dynamic systems associated to the water cycle. Hence, it provides platforms of pressure, flow and level processes, over which it is possible to implement real-time advanced control strategies. This laboratory is also open to offer services to other teams in the research community.

Research area 2 of Automatic Control
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