This technical report reviews the state-of-the art in the field of ToF cameras, their advantages, their limitations, and their present-day applications sometimes in combination with other sensors. Even though ToF cameras provide neither higher resolution nor larger ambiguity-free range compared to other range map estimation systems, advantages such as registered depth and intensity data at a high frame rate, compact design, low weight and reduced power consumption have motivated their use in numerous areas of research. In robotics, these areas range from mobile robot navigation and map building to vision-based human motion capture and gesture recognition, showing particularly a great potential in object modeling and recognition.


active vision, face recognition, gesture recognition, object detection, object recognition, pose estimation.

Author keywords

Time-of-Flight, ToF cameras, review

Scientific reference

S. Foix, G. Alenyà and C. Torras. Exploitation of time-of-flight (ToF) cameras. Technical Report IRI-TR-10-07, Institut de Robòtica i Informàtica Industrial, CSIC-UPC, 2010.