A learning framework with a bidirectional communication channel is proposed, where a human performs several demonstrations of a task using a haptic device (providing him/her with force-torque feedback) while a robot captures these executions using only its force-based perceptive system. Our work departs from the usual approaches to learning by demonstration in that the robot has to execute the task blindly, relying only on force-torque perceptions, and, more essential, we address goal-driven manipulation tasks with multiple solution trajectories, whereas most works tackle tasks that can be learned by just finding a generalization at the trajectory level. To cope with these multiple-solution tasks, in our framework demonstrations are represented by means of a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and the robot reproduction of the task is performed using a modified version of Gaussian Mixture Regression that incorporates temporal information (GMRa) through the forward variable of the HMM. Also, we exploit the haptic device as a teaching and communication tool in a human-robot interaction context, as an alternative to kinesthetic-based teaching systems. Results show that the robot is able to learn a container-emptying task relying only on force-based perceptions and to achieve the goal from several non-trained initial conditions.


learning (artificial intelligence), robot programming, telerobotics.

Author keywords

robot learning, human-robot interaction, haptic inputs, HMM, GMR

Scientific reference

L. Rozo, P. Jiménez and C. Torras. Robot learning from demonstration of force-based tasks with multiple solution trajectories, 15th International Conference on Advanced Robotics, 2011, Tallin, Estonia, pp. 124-129, IEEE.